TCP/IP Behind the Scene

What is TCP/IP Model?

TCP/IP is a suite of internet protocol that helps to build a reliable connection between hosts running on IP network to achieve end-to-end data communication. The functionality is divided into four abstraction layers:

Peeling the Onion

When I was studying the cross-cultural communication course at university, I learned about the onion theory, where cultural behaviors are analyzed from different layers like peeling an onion. I really like this metaphor so will borrow it to explain the TCP/IP model. In this section, I’ll peel the onion and deep dive into every single layer. At its very core, the TCP/IP model is doing two things:

  1. Transferring data
One of the messages on the fly

Let’s start from the top layer — Application Layer

Message in the application layer

Keep going — Transport Layer

A segment in the transport layer

Let’s go deeper — Internet Layer

A packet in the internet layer

Lastly — Link Layer

Frame in the Link Layer


A self-taught full stack developer.